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# 现代行波故障测距原理及其在实测故障分析中的应用(二)―D型原理

Modern travelling wave-based fault location principle and its application to actual fault analysis-type D principle

Chen Ping1, Ge Yao-zhong1, Xu Bing-yin2, Li Jing2

(1. Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China)
(2. Kehui Electric Co Ltd, Zibo 255031, China)

Abstract: A rising time always exists in the wavefront of an actual transient travelling wave appearing on a transmission line. This makes it difficult to be tagged for the arrival time of the fault induced initial surges at both ends of one transmission line, resulting in unavoidable location error in the existing double-ended travelling wave based fault location methods. Based on the analyses of Type D double-ended modern travelling wave based fault location principle and its accuracy, the compensated Type D fault location algorithm is presented in this paper, which compensates the location error with the relative time difference between the absolute time corresponding to the start point of the fault caused initial surge and the detected arrival time of the fault caused initial surge by the fault locator at each end of the measured line. The actual fault analyses show that the Type D principle possesses very high reliability, and its absolute location error does not exceed 1 km.
Key words: transmission lines; modern travelling wave based fault location (MTWFL); GPS; Type D principle;current transient

0 引言

20世纪90年代初，在A型早期行波故障测距原理的基础上，我国提出了利用电流暂态故障分量的A型现代行波故障测距原理、算法和实现方案[2,3]，从而推动了现代行波故障测距(MTWFL)的发展[4]。另一方面，全球定位系统在电力系统中的[5]，为现代电力系统同步时钟的研制创造了条件[6]，进而使得D型现代行波故障测距原理得到发展。
1995年，国内研制出利用电流暂态分量的输电线路现代行波故障测距装置，它集成了A、D、E等3种现代行波故障测距原理，其平均绝对测距误差在400m以内[7]。2000年，国内又推出功能更为强大的现代行波故障测距系统，其绝对测距误差可达200m以内[8]。

1 D型现代行波故障测距基本原理
D型现代行波故障测距原理为利用故障暂态行波的双端测距原理，它利用线路内部故障产生的初始行波浪涌到达线路两端测量点时的绝对时间之差值计算故障点到两端测量点之间的距离。

D型早期行波故障测距装置采用载波方式实现线路两端测距装置的时间同步，因而难以获得较高的测距精度。D型现代行波故障测距原理采用内置全球定位系统(GPS)接收模块的电力系统同步时钟实现精确秒同步，这使得线路两端的时间同步误差平均不超过1μs，而由此产生的绝对测距误差不超过150m。

2 D型现代行波故障测距原理的准确性分析
D型现代行波故障测距原理利用线路长度、波速度和故障初始行波浪涌到达故障线路两端母线时的绝对时间之差值计算故障距离。因此，能否获得准确的线路长度、波速度和故障初始行波浪涌到达时刻，将直接影响测距准确性。

3 带补偿量的D型双端行波故障测距算法